Bragança lies on a branch of the Sabor River south of the Culebra Mountains, 255 km northeast of Porto, 515 km from Lisbon and 22 km from the Spanish border.

The climate in Bragança (the north-eastern most district capital Portuguese city) is Mediterranean, influenced by the distance from the coast and the elevation. It is very similar to the continental climate of the Spanish Meseta, which means cooler winters and shorter hot summers. Snow in winter is very common and can last for several days. The high in January is around 8.5 °C (47 °F) while the August and July high is around 28.5 °C (83 °F). The January low hovers around the freezing point. It has been known to snow in May, and winter temperatures can fall to as low as −11.6 °C (11 °F). However, the temperature of -17.5°C has been recorded in 1983 in the station of a local institute. The annual mean is around 12 °C (54 °F).